Water for Offshore Oil and Gas: Opportunities in sulphate removal, produced water treatment and deepwater operations

Categories: Energy and Natural Resources, Fossil Fuels, Oil

Price: $3,092

Description

It is predicted that the number of offshore platforms installed per year will double between 2011 and 2016, representing the continued growth in the offshore oil and gas sector. Driven by increasing global energy demand and technological improvements, E&P companies are increasingly exploiting deepwater fields and investing in solutions to maximise production from mature oilfields. This report will highlight the exciting opportunities for water companies to provide solutions to meet these market developments.

Public pressure, tightening regulations for produced water, depleting shallow water resources and new deepwater developments require significant capital investment from E&P companies. The water sector can help reduce the risks of these investments by providing new and sophisticated treatment technologies for water injection. This report is a must-have resource if you want to identify the markets and regions with the most potential - so you can explore the potential of this market for your business.

Opportunities

The report analyses the two major avenues of opportunity for water companies working within the sector:

- Water Injection and Enhanced Oil Recovery
- E&P companies are investing to maintain production in mature fields, with the added challenge of operating in difficult and inhospitable offshore environments.

This report looks at opportunities for innovative water treatment solutions to capitalize on the resources available, the report focuses on:

- Sulphate Removal Systems – As the complexities of offshore deepwater oil development increase, so has the use of specialized membrane systems to remove suphate from the seawater used for waterfloods and pressure maintenance. We explore the opportunities for solutions that enable E&Ps to maintain production levels and increase well productivity.
- Low-salinity water – although still being tested by some E&P’s, pilot data suggest that this incremental oil recovery using this method can be potentially significant. We explore the future potential for companies offering low-salinity pre-treatment solutions that can improve the ‘wettability’ of reservoirs and maximise production for E&P’s.
- Enhanced oil recovery – EOR increased the amount of oil that can be extracted from a well by reducing the viscosity of the oil. This report outlines how advanced water treatment solutions can support chemical injection for EOR.

Produced Water ManagementE&P companies are investing in solutions that enable them to meet and surpass regional regulations for produced water treatment and disposal, driven largely by public concerns and the drive to sustain brand reputation. The report investigates regional regulations and water management practices, so you can understand the challenges E&P’s face and how these obstacles are creating avenues of opportunity for water treatment suppliers.

Market breakdown

Water for Offshore and Gas offers a global picture of the industry and then focuses on the fastest growing markets with the most important activity, including developments in the South China Sea and deepwater Atlantic fields.

This report is the only resource you need to establish an accurate picture of the regions that offer the best prospects for your business and to plan a strategy for responding to the demands of each market. For each regional market we show you the total offshore oil and gas production, produced water volumes, major E&P companies and an insight into the challenges the industry faces. Finally, in a section on market dynamics, we analyse key players, supply chain and procurement models for water treatment equipment.

Water for Offshore Oil and Gas investigates the following markets:

- Brazil
- Gulf of Mexico
- North Sea
- Caspian Sea
- Persian Gulf
- West Africa
- Asia Pacific

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1 Global oil and gas prices
Figure 1.1 Global oil prices, 2000–2014
Figure 1.2 Global gas prices, 2000–2014
1.2 General trends 1.2.1 Offshore oil production
Figure 1.3 Historical and forecasted global offshore oil production by region, 2000–2030
1.2.2 Offshore natural gas production
Figure 1.4 Historical and forecasted global offshore natural gas production, 2000–2030 1.2.3 Offshore facility construction
Figure 1.5 Installation of new offshore oil and gas production facilities, 2000–2017 1.3 Market forecast
Figure 1.6 Global capital expenditure on water treatment by system, 2011–2020
Figure 1.7 Capital expenditure on water treatment by region, 2011–2020
1.3.1 Produced water volumes
Figure 1.8 Global offshore produced water volumes by region, 2011–2020
1.3.2 Produced water treatment
Figure 1.9 Global capital expenditure on produced water treatment equipment, 2011–2020
Figure 1.10 Global capital expenditure on produced water treatment by region, 2011–2020
1.3.3 Sulphate removal / low salinity water
Figure 1.11 Capital expenditure on sulphate removal / low salinity water by region, 2011–2020

2. Water injection
Figure 2.1 Oil recovery stages
2.1 Improved oil recovery (IOR)
2.1.1 Sulphate removal
2.1.1.1 Regional markets
Figure 2.2 Location of installed and planned sulphate removal systems North Sea
Figure 2.3 Additional and cumulative capacity of sulphate removal systems in the North Sea, 1987–2014
Figure 2.4 Cumulative market share of sulphate removal system suppliers in the North Sea
Gulf of Mexico
Figure 2.5 Additional and cumulative capacity of sulphate removal systems in the Gulf of Mexico, 1990–2014
Figure 2.6 Cumulative market share of sulphate removal system suppliers in the Gulf of Mexico Brazil
Figure 2.7 Additional and cumulative capacity of sulphate removal systems in Brazil, 2000–2014
Figure 2.8 Cumulative market share of sulphate removal system suppliers in Brazil West Africa
Figure 2.9 Additional and cumulative capacity of sulphate removal systems in West Africa, 1995–2014
Figure 2.10 Cumulative market share of sulphate removal system suppliers in West Africa
2.1.1.2 Market players
Figure 2.11 Global cumulative market share of sulphate removal system integrators
Figure 2.12 Global cumulative market share of membrane suppliers for sulphate removal
Figure 2.13 Cumulative contracted capacity of sulphate removal systems by operator
2.1.1.3 Technology developments
Figure 2.14 Evolution of sulphate removal treatment technology trains
2.1.1.4 Market forecast
Figure 2.15 Growth in cumulative installed capacity for sulphate removal systems, 1987–2014
Figure 2.16 Historical and anticipated additions to online sulphate removal capacity, 1987–2020
Figure 2.17 Capital expenditure for sulphate removal systems by region, 2000–2020
2.2 Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) 1 Low salinity water
Figure 2.18 Current state of low salinity water applications globally
2.2.2 Chemical EOR
Figure 2.20 Low salinity water in polymer flooding
2.2.3 Water treatment for low salinity water and CEOR
Figure 2.21 Desalination plant at the Clair Ridge platform
2.2.4 The future of the water treatment market for EOR

3. Produced water treatment
Figure 3.1 Estimated offshore produced water volumes by region, 2000–2020
3.1 Produced water management
Figure 3.2 Global offshore produced water management, 2000–2020
3.2 Produced water treatment train
Figure 3.3 Typical produced water treatment train for offshore oil and gas operations
Figure 3.4 Types of produced water treatment technologies used in the offshore oil and gas industry
3.2.1 Subsea produced water treatment
3.2.2 Key market players in produced water treatment
Figure 3.5 Produced water technologies and equipment of key market players in the offshore industry
3.3 Produced water monitoring
3.3.1 Oil-in-water monitoring methods
3.3.1.1 UV fluorescence
3.3.1.2 Light scattering/image analysis
3.3.1.3 Other methods
3.3.1.4 Improving monitoring operations
3.3.2 Accessing the market 3.3.3 Market direction
Figure 3.6 Estimated capital expenditure for online oil-in-water monitoring, 2011–2020

4. Regions: Part 1
4.1 Brazil Figure
4.1 Brazil’s offshore oil and gas production, 2004–2013
Figure 4.2 Map of Brazil’s offshore oil and gas installations since 2000, and the pre-salt area
Figure 4.3 Brazil’s oil production, 2004–2013
Figure 4.4 Brazil’s gas production, 2004–2013
Figure 4.5 Brazil’s states ranked according to offshore oil production, 2004–2013
Figure 4.6 Brazil’s states ranked according to offshore gas production, 2004–2013
4.1.1 E&P companies
Figure 4.7 Top E&P operators in Brazil’s onshore and offshore oil and gas industry by production, 2013
4.1.2 Reserves and future production
Figure 4.8 Brazil’s offshore reserves by state, 2013
Figure 4.9 Petrobras’ current and future oil and gas production in Brazil, 2013–2020
4.1.3 Petrobras’ investments
Figure 4.10 Petrobras’ E&P investment, 2014–2018
Figure 4.11 Production facilities operated by Petrobras offshore in Brazil, by start up year
4.1.4 E&P contracting regimes
4.1.5 Water in upstream offshore Brazil
Figure 4.12 Brazil’s offshore produced water, 2005–2013
Figure 4.13 Water to oil ratio (WOR) in Brazil’s offshore fields, 2005–2013
4.1.6 Market forecast: Brazil Figure
4.14 Capital expenditure on water treatment equipment by system in Brazil, 2011–2020
Figure 4.15 Produced water volumes from offshore oil and gas production in Brazil, 2011–2020
Figure 4.16 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment by equipment in Brazil, 2011–2020
4.2 North Sea
Figure 4.17 Map of offshore oil and gas installations in the North Sea
4.2.1 Oil and gas production
4.2.1.1 Production values
Figure 4.18 North Sea oil production, 1971–2018
Figure 4.19 North Sea gas production, 1971–2018
4.2.1.2 Projected production
Figure 4.20 North Sea produced water volumes, 2006–2012
Figure 4.21 Water to oil ratios, 2006–2013
4.2.2 Water treatment technologies
4.2.3 Main E&P companies
Figure 4.22 Top oil and gas operators in the North Sea, 2013
4.2.4 Reserves and exploration
Figure 4.23 Estimated North Sea oil reserves, 1980–2014
Figure 4.24 Estimated North Sea gas reserves, 1980–2014
Figure 4.25 Number of exploration and production wells, 1968–2013
4.2.5 Incentives for exploration
4.2.6 Regulations
4.2.7 Market forecast: North Sea
Figure 4.26 Capital expenditure on water treatment equipment by system in the North Sea, 2011–2020
Figure 4.27 Produced water volumes from offshore oil and gas production in the North Sea, 2011–2020
Figure 4.28 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment by equipment in the North Sea, 2011–2020
4.3 Gulf of Mexico
4.3.1 Gulf of Mexico (United States)
Figure 4.29 Historical and forecasted offshore crude oil production in the U.S., 1986–2040
Figure 4.30 U.S. offshore proven crude oil reserves, 2009–2012
Figure 4.31 Map of operational U.S. offshore oil and gas installations in the Gulf of Mexico
4.3.1.1 Offshore oil and gas production
Figure 4.32 Total United States offshore oil production, 1986–2012
Figure 4.33 Oil production in the Gulf of Mexico by well depth, 1996–2013
Figure 4.34 Gas production in the Gulf of Mexico by well depth, 1996–2013
4.3.1.2 Produced water
Figure 4.35 Produced water volumes in the Gulf of Mexico by well depth, 1996–2013
Figure 4.36 WOR in the Gulf of Mexico by well depth, 1996–2013
Figure 4.37 Produced water disposal methods on the Gulf of Mexico OCS, 2013
4.3.1.3 Major E&P companies
Figure 4.38 Top 10 Gulf of Mexico oil producers, 2007–2013
Figure 4.39 Top 10 Gulf of Mexico oil producers cumulative production, 2007–2013
Figure 4.40 Top 10 Gulf of Mexico gas producers, 2007–2013
4.3.1.4 Regulations Relevant legislation
4.3.2 Gulf of Mexico (Mexico)
Figure 4.41 Offshore and onshore oil production, 1979–2013
Figure 4.42 Offshore and onshore gas production, 1979–2013
Figure 4.43 Offshore oil and gas production by region, 2000–2013 Figure 4.44 Map of offshore oil and gas installations since 2000 and exploration projects in Mexico
4.3.2.1 Investment in E&P and expected production Figure 4.45 Pemex offshore E&P capex, actual and expected, 2009–2017 Figure 4.46 Expected oil production, 2014–2018 Figure 4.48 Expected gas production, 2014–2018 Figure 4.50 Summary of Pemex’s portfolio of E&P projects
4.3.2.2 Reserves
Figure 4.52 Total hydrocarbon reserves in Mexico
Figure 4.53 Mexico offshore reserves by region, 2013
4.3.2.3 The energy reform: the end of Pemex’s monopoly
Figure 4.54 Results of Round Zero: reserves granted to Pemex
Figure 4.56 Pemex’s E&P contracts with third parties and future priority blocks for farm-out agreements
4.3.2.4 Produced water management
Figure 4.58 Percentage of produced water reinjected by offshore region, 2004–2012
Figure 4.59 Capital expenditure on water treatment equipment by system in the Gulf of Mexico, 2011–2020
Figure 4.60 Produced water volumes from offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico, 2011–2020
Figure 4.61 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment by equipment in the Gulf of Mexico, 2011–2020

5. Regions: Part 2
5.1 West Africa Figure
5.1 Offshore oil production in Angola by field depth, 2004–2013
5.1.1 Oil and gas production
Figure 5.2 Major offshore oil producing countries in West Africa, 2000–2013
Figure 5.3 Major offshore gas producing countries in West Africa, 2000–2013
Figure 5.4 Map of offshore oil and gas installations in West Africa since 2000
5.1.2 Major E&P operators
Figure 5.5 Share of offshore oil production in West Africa by operator, 2013
Figure 5.6 Domestic and international operators’ offshore oil production in Nigeria, 2000–2013
Figure 5.7 Share of offshore gas production in West Africa by operator, 2013
5.1.3 Produced water volumes
Figure 5.8 Estimated volume of produced water from Nigerian offshore oil production, 2000–2013
5.1.4 Market forecast: West Africa
Figure 5.9 Capital expenditure on water treatment equipment by system in West Africa, 2011–2020
Figure 5.10 Produced water volumes from offshore oil and gas production in West Africa, 2011–2020
Figure 5.11 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment by equipment in West Africa, 2011–2020
5.2 Persian Gulf
Figure 5.12 Map of offshore oil and gas installations in the Persian Gulf since 2000
5.2.1 Oil and gas production
Figure 5.13 Persian Gulf offshore oil production 2000–2013
Figure 5.14 Persian Gulf offshore gas production 2000–2012
5.2.2 Major offshore E&P companies
Figure 5.15 Top oil companies in the Persian Gulf, 2012
Figure 5.16 Top gas companies in the Persian Gulf, 2012
5.2.3 Current and future projects
5.2.3.1 Saudi Arabia projects
5.2.3.2 UAE projects
5.2.3.3 Qatar projects
5.2.3.4 Iran projects
5.2.4 Water treatment and technologies
5.2.4.1 Produced water management
5.2.5 Production contract types
5.2.6 Market forecast: Persian Gulf
Figure 5.17 Capital expenditure on water treatment equipment by system in the Persian Gulf, 2011–2020
Figure 5.18 Produced water volumes from offshore oil and gas production in the Persian Gulf, 2011–2020
Figure 5.19 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment by equipment in the Persian Gulf, 2011–2020
5.3 Caspian Sea
Figure 5.20 Map of offshore oil and gas installations in the Caspian Sea since 2000
Figure 5.21 Caspian Sea offshore oil production, 2001–2013
5.3.1 Azerbaijan
5.3.1.1 Oil production
Figure 5.22 Azerbaijan’s offshore oil production, 2001–2013
Figure 5.23 Shareholders of the ACG oil field, Azerbaijan
5.3.1.2 Gas production
Figure 5.24 Azerbaijan’s offshore gas production, 2001–2013
Figure 5.25 Shareholders of the Shah Deniz gas field, Azerbaijan
5.3.1.3 Produced water management
Figure 5.26 Produced water volumes from ACG and Shah Deniz fields, 2008–2013
Figure 5.27 Methods of produced water management from BP’s fields in Azerbaijan, 2013
5.3.2 Kazakhstan
5.3.2.1 Kashagan offshore oil field
5.3.2.2 Kashagan field operators
Figure 5.28 Shareholders of the Kashagan oilfield, Kazakhstan
5.3.2.3 Kashagan future production
Figure 5.29 Expected oil production from the Kashagan field, Kazakhstan
5.3.3 Market forecast: Caspian Sea
Figure 5.30 Produced water volumes from offshore oil and gas production in the Caspian Sea, 2011–2020
Figure 5.31 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment by equipment in the Caspian Sea, 2011–2020
5.4 Asia Pacific
5.4.1 China
Figure 5.32 Map of China’s offshore oil and gas installations since 2000
Figure 5.33 China’s proven technically recoverable offshore oil reserves by region, 2011
5.4.1.1 Offshore oil and gas production
Figure 5.34 China’s crude oil production, 2000–2013
Figure 5.35 China’s natural gas production, 2000–2013
Figure 5.36 China’s offshore oil production by region, 2000–2011
Figure 5.37 China’s offshore gas production by region, 2000–2011
5.4.1.2 Major E&P companies
Figure 5.38 NOC’s share of China’s offshore crude oil production, 2000 and 2011
Figure 5.39 Major exploration and production companies in China
5.4.1.3 Injection wells and produced water management
Figure 5.40 China’s offshore oil and gas wells by region, 2000–2011
Figure 5.41 China’s offshore injection wells by region, 2000–2011
Figure 5.42 China’s produced water discharge volumes by region, 2004–2013
Figure 5.43 Major offshore produced water equipment providers in China
5.4.1.4 Regulatory standards for produced water
Figure 5.44 Standards for produced water discharged to the sea
5.4.1.5 Future development
5.4.2 Australia
5.4.2.1 Offshore oil production
Figure 5.45 Australia’s offshore oil production, 1971–2013
5.4.2.2 Offshore natural gas production
Figure 5.46 Australia’s offshore natural gas production, 1971–2013
5.4.2.3 Australia’s main offshore operators
Figure 5.47 Australia’s top offshore oil and gas operators, 2013
5.4.2.4 Water treatment
5.4.3 Other countries in Asia Pacific
Figure 5.48 Map of offshore oil and gas installations in South East Asia since 2000
Figure 5.49 History of offshore oil production in the Asia Pacific region
Figure 5.50 Total and offshore proven oil reserves by country, as of January 2014
5.4.3.1 Oil production
Figure 5.51 Offshore oil production in South Asia and the South China Sea, 2000–2012
5.4.3.2 Natural gas production
Figure 5.52 Offshore gas production in South Asia and the South China Sea, 2000–2012
5.4.3.3 Major E&P companies
Figure 5.53 Major E&P companies in South Asia and the South China Sea
5.4.4 Market forecast: Asia Pacific
Figure 5.54 Capital expenditure on water treatment equipment by system in Asia Pacific, 2011–2020
Figure 5.55 Produced water volumes from offshore oil and gas production in Asia Pacific, 2011–2020
Figure 5.56 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment by equipment in Asia Pacific, 2011–2020

6. Procurement in the offshore oil and gas industry
6.1 Dynamics in offshore oil and gas
6.1.1 Players in the offshore oil and gas industry
Figure 6.1 Major players in the offshore oil and gas industry
6.1.1.1 E&P companies
6.1.1.2 Consulting engineers
Figure 6.2 Top 10 consulting engineers in the oil and gas industry
6.1.1.3 Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) companies
6.1.1.4 Water treatment system and equipment suppliers
Water system integrators Equipment suppliers
6.2 Water equipment sale in offshore oil and gas
Figure 6.3 Water equipment sale in the offshore oil and gas industry
6.2.1 Water injection equipment
6.2.2 Produced water treatment equipment
6.2.3 Advantages of treatment trains versus equipment skids
6.2.4 Post-sale service
6.2.5 Greenfield versus brownfield projects
6.2.6 Eligibility for bidding
6.2.7 Evaluation criteria
6.2.8 Capex versus opex
6.3 Involvement in FEED studies
6.4 High barriers to entry
6.5 Ways into the industry
6.6 Industry needs
6.7 Regional peculiarities
6.7.1 China
6.7.2 Brazil
6.7.3 West Africa
6.7.4 Other countries
Interviewees
References